Livres des États-Unis ☆ 21 Lessons for the 21st Century ePUB Par ↠ Yuval Noah Harari Æ – groundhogwalking.co.uk

21 Lessons for the 21st Century1DisillusionmentThe End of History Has Been PostponedHumans think in stories rather than in facts, numbers, or equations, and the simpler the story, the better Every person, group, and nation has its own tales and myths But during the twentieth century the global elites in New York, London, Berlin, and Moscow formulated three grand stories that claimed to explain the whole past and to predict the future of the entire world the fascist story, the communist story, and the liberal story The Second World War knocked out the fascist story, and from the late 1940s to the late 1980s the world became a battleground between just two stories communism and liberalism Then the communist story collapsed, and the liberal story remained the dominant guide to the human past and the indispensable manual for the future of the worldor so it seemed to the global elite.The liberal story celebrates the value and power of liberty It says that for thousands of years humankind lived under oppressive regimes that allowed people few political rights, economic opportunities, or personal liberties, and which heavily restricted the movements of individuals, ideas, and goods But people fought for their freedom, and step by step, liberty gained ground Democratic regimes took the place of brutal dictatorships Free enterprise overcame economic restrictions People learned to think for themselves and follow their hearts instead of blindly obeying bigoted priests and hidebound traditions Open roads, wide bridges, and bustling airports replaced walls, moats, and barbed wire fences.The liberal story acknowledges that not all is well in the world and that there are still many hurdles to overcome Much of our planet is dominated by tyrants, and even in the most liberal countries many citizens suffer from poverty, violence, and oppression But at least we know what we need to do in order to overcome these problems give people liberty We need to protect human rights, grant everybody the vote, establish free markets, and let individuals, ideas, and goods move throughout the world as easily as possible According to this liberal panaceaaccepted, in slight variations, by George W Bush and Barack Obama alikeif we just continue to liberalize and globalize our political and economic systems, we will produce peace and prosperity for all.1Countries that join this unstoppable march of progress will be rewarded with peace and prosperity sooner Countries that try to resist the inevitable will suffer the consequences until they too see the light, open their borders, and liberalize their societies, their politics, and their markets It may take time, but eventually even North Korea, Iraq, and El Salvador will look like Denmark or Iowa.In the 1990s and 2000s this story became a global mantra Many governments from Brazil to India adopted liberal recipes in an attempt to join the inexorable march of history Those failing to do so seemed like fossils from a bygone era In 1997 U.S president Bill Clinton confidently rebuked the Chinese government, stating that its refusal to liberalize Chinese politics put it on the wrong side of history.2However, since the global financial crisis of 2008 people all over the world have become increasingly disillusioned with the liberal story Walls and firewalls are back in vogue Resistance to immigration and to trade agreements is mounting Ostensibly democratic governments undermine the independence of the judiciary system, restrict the freedom of the press, and portray any opposition as treason Strongmen in countries such as Turkey and Russia experiment with new types of illiberal democracies and outright dictatorships Today, few would confidently declare that the Chinese Communist Party is on the wrong side of history.The year 2016marked by the Brexit vote in Britain and the rise of Donald Trump in the United Statessignified the moment when this tidal wave of disillusionment reached the core liberal states of Western Europe and North America Whereas a few years ago Americans and Europeans were still trying to liberalize Iraq and Libya at gunpoint, many people in Kentucky and Yorkshire now have come to see the liberal vision as either undesirable or unattainable Some discovered a liking for the old hierarchical world, and they just dont want to give up their racial, national, or gendered privileges Others have concluded rightly or wrongly that liberalization and globalization are a huge racket empowering a tiny elite at the expense of the masses.In 1938 humans were offered three global stories to choose from, in 1968 just two, and in 1998 a single story seemed to prevail In 2018 we are down to zero No wonder that the liberal elites, who dominated much of the world in recent decades, are in a state of shock and disorientation To have one story is the most reassuring situation of all Everything is perfectly clear To be suddenly left without any story is terrifying Nothing makes any sense A bit like the Soviet elite in the 1980s, liberals dont understand how history deviated from its preordained course, and they lack an alternative prism through which to interpret reality Disorientation causes them to think in apocalyptic terms, as if the failure of history to come to its envisioned happy ending can only mean that it is hurtling toward Armageddon Unable to conduct a reality check, the mind latches onto catastrophic scenarios Like a person imagining that a bad headache signifies a terminal brain tumor, many liberals fear that Brexit and the rise of Donald Trump portend the end of human civilization.From Killing Mosquitoes to Killing ThoughtsOur sense of disorientation and impending doom is exacerbated by the accelerating pace of technological disruption The liberal political system was shaped during the industrial era to manage a world of steam engines, oil refineries, and television sets It has difficulty dealing with the ongoing revolutions in information technology and biotechnology.Both politicians and voters are barely able to comprehend the new technologies, let alone regulate their explosive potential Since the 1990s the internet has changed the world probably than any other factor, yet the internet revolution was directed by engineers than by political parties Did you ever vote about the internet The democratic system is still struggling to understand what hit it, and it is unequipped to deal with the next shocks, such as the rise of AI and the blockchain revolution.Already today, computers have made the financial system so complicated that few humans can understand it As AI improves, we might soon reach a point when no human can make sense of finance any What will that do to the political process Can you imagine a government that waits humbly for an algorithm to approve its budget or its new tax reform Meanwhile, peer to peer blockchain networks and cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin might completely revamp the monetary system, making radical tax reforms inevitable For example, it might become impossible or irrelevant to calculate and tax incomes in dollars, because most transactions will not involve a clear cut exchange of national currency, or any currency at all Governments might therefore need to invent entirely new taxesperhaps a tax on information which will be both the most important asset in the economy and the only thing exchanged in numerous transactions Will the political system manage to deal with the crisis before it runs out of money Even important, the twin revolutions in infotech and biotech could restructure not just economies and societies but our very bodies and minds In the past, we humans learned to control the world outside us, but we had very little control over the world inside us We knew how to build a dam and stop a river from flowing, but we did not know how to stop the body from aging We knew how to design an irrigation system, but we had no idea how to design a brain If a mosquito buzzed in our ear and disturbed our sleep, we knew how to kill the mosquito, but if a thought buzzed in our mind and kept us awake at night, most of us did not know how to kill the thought.The revolutions in biotech and infotech will give us control of the world inside us and will enable us to engineer and manufacture life We will learn how to design brains, extend lives, and kill thoughts at our discretion Nobody knows what the consequences will be Humans were always far better at inventing tools than using them wisely It is easier to manipulate a river by building a dam than it is to predict all the complex consequences this will have for the wider ecological system Similarly, it will be easier to redirect the flow of our minds than to divine what that will do to our personal psychology or to our social systems.In the past, we gained the power to manipulate the world around us and reshape the entire planet, but because we didnt understand the complexity of the global ecology, the changes we made inadvertently disrupted the entire ecological system, and now we face an ecological collapse In the coming century biotech and infotech will give us the power to manipulate the world inside us and reshape ourselves, but because we dont understand the complexity of our own minds, the changes we will make might upset our mental system to such an extent that it too might break down.The revolutions in biotech and infotech are currently being started by engineers, entrepreneurs, and scientists who are hardly aware of the political implications of their decisions, and who certainly dont represent anyone Can parliaments and political parties take matters into their own hands At present it does not seem so Technological disruption is not even a leading item on the political agenda During the 2016 U.S presidential race, the main reference to disruptive technology concerned Hillary Clintons email debacle, and despite all the talk about job loss, neither candidate addressed the potential impact of automation.3 Donald Trump warned voters that the Mexicans and Chinese would take their jobs, and that they should therefore build a wall on the Mexican border.4 He never warned voters that algorithms would take their jobs, nor did he suggest building a firewall on the border with California.This might be one of the reasons though not the only one voters even in the heartlands of the liberal West are losing faith in the liberal story and in the democratic process Ordinary people may not understand artificial intelligence and biotechnology, but they can sense that the future is passing them by In 1938 the condition of the common person in the USSR, Germany, or the United States may have been grim, but he was constantly told that he was the most important thing in the world, and that he was the future provided, of course, that he was an ordinary person rather than a Jew or an African He looked at the propaganda posterswhich typically depicted coal miners, steelworkers, and housewives in heroic posesand saw himself there I am in that poster I am the hero of the future 5In 2018 the common person feels increasingly irrelevant Lots of mysterious words are bandied around excitedly in TED Talks, government think tanks, and high tech conferencesglobalization, blockchain, genetic engineering, artificial intelligence, machine learningand common people may well suspect that none of these words are about them The liberal story was the story of ordinary people How can it remain relevant to a world of cyborgs and networked algorithms In the twentieth century, the masses revolted against exploitation and sought to translate their vital role in the economy into political power Now the masses fear irrelevance, and they are frantic to use their remaining political power before it is too late Brexit and the rise of Trump might therefore demonstrate a trajectory opposite to that of traditional socialist revolutions The Russian, Chinese, and Cuban revolutions were made by people who were vital to the economy but who lacked political power in 2016, Trump and Brexit were supported by many people who still enjoyed political power but who feared that they were losing their economic worth Perhaps in the twenty first century populist revolts will be staged not against an economic elite that exploits people but against an economic elite that does not need them any.6 This may well be a losing battle It is much harder to struggle against irrelevance than against exploitation.The human mind wants to worry This is not necessarily a bad thingafter all, if a bear is stalking you, worrying about it may well save your life Although most of us dont need to lose too much sleep over bears these days, modern life does present plenty of other reasons for concern terrorism, climate change, the rise of A.I., encroachments on our privacy, even the apparent decline of international cooperation.In his fascinating new book, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century, the historian Yuval Noah Harari creates a useful framework for confronting these fears.While his previous best sellers, Sapiensand Homo Deus, covered the past and future respectively, his new book is all about the present The trick for putting an end to our anxieties, he suggests, is not to stop worrying Its to know which things to worry about, and how much to worry about them Harari is such a stimulating writer that even when I disagreed, I wanted to keep reading and thinking Harari has teed up a crucial global conversation about how to take on the problems of the twenty first century.Bill Gates, The New York Times Book ReviewIf there were such a thing asa required instruction manual for politicians and thought leaders, Israeli historian Yuval Noah Hararis 21 Lessons for the 21st Centurywould deserve serious consideration In this collection ofprovocativeessays, Harari, author of the critically praised Sapiensand Homo Deus, tackles a daunting array of issues, endeavoring to answer a persistent question What is happening in the world today, and what is the deep meaning of these events Harari makesa passionate argument for reshaping our educational systemsand replacing our current emphasis on quickly outdated substantive knowledge with the four Cscritical thinking, communication, collaboration and creativity Thoughtful readers will find 21 Lessons for the 21st Centuryto bea mind expanding experience BookPage top pick Asobering and tough mindedperspective on bewildering new vistas Booklist starred review Magnificently combining historical, scientific, political, and philosophical perspectives, Harari explores twenty one of what he considers to be todays greatest challenges Despite the titles reference to lessons,his tone is not prescriptive but exploratory, seeking to provoke debatewithout offering definitive solutions Within this broad construct, Harari discusses many pressing issues, including problems associated with liberal democracy, nationalism, immigration, and religion This well informed and searchingbook isone to be savored and widely discussed Publishers Weekly starred review Ahighly instructiveexploration of current affairs and the immediate future of human societies Having produced an international bestseller about human origins and avoided the sopho jinx writing about our destiny, Harari proves that he has not lost his touch, casting a brilliantly insightful eye on todays myriad crises, from Trump to terrorism, Brexit to big data In twenty onepainfully astuteessays, he delivers his take on where our increasingly post truth world is headed Human ingenuity, which enables us to control the outside world, may soon re engineer our insides, extend life, and guide our thoughts Science fiction movies get the future wrong, if only because they have happy endings Most readers will find Hararis narrativedeliciously reasonable, including his explanation of the stories not actually true but rational of those who elect dictators, populists, and nationalists.His remedies for wildly disruptive technology biotech, infotech and its consequences climate change, mass unemployment ring true, provided nations act with good sense than they have shown throughout history Harari deliversyet another tour de force Kirkus Reviews starred review Meilleur Lire 21 Lessons for the 21st Century [ Par ] Yuval Noah Harari [ Kindle ePUB or eBook ] – groundhogwalking.co.uk

    8 thoughts on “Livres des États-Unis ☆ 21 Lessons for the 21st Century ePUB Par ↠ Yuval Noah Harari Æ – groundhogwalking.co.uk

  1. J aimerais pouvoir mettre 6 toiles.Pour donner le contexte, J ai sur les 18 derniers mois ses 3 livres Sapiens , puis Homo Deus , et enfin 21 Lessons for the 21st century J ai t stup fait par Sapiens, l analyse de l homme dans le temps long, la d marche de d construction pour tenter d en d celer les caract ristiques uniques, et en particulier cette pr sentation convaincante de l imagination humaine comme outil de collaboration grande chelle J ai t fascin par Homo Deus pour l audace de sa vision du futur long, en particulier le passage probable de l volution par process al atoire l volution manufactur e, la d finition de la vie comme data processing et la diff rence entre intelligence et conscience J ai h sit avant de lire Homo Deus en me disant qu on ne peut pas tre g nial 2 fois. Avant de lire 21 lessons je me suis dit jamais 2 sans 3 sans y croire Bon, finalement Bingo Ce 3 me livre est aussi riche, aussi impressionnant de clart , de clairvoyance et aussi clairant que les pr c dents La diff rence est qu il passe plus rapidement sur les sujets, une dizaines environ sous forme de chapitres distincts On sent que l auteur pourrait faire un petit livre de chacun, tellement sa pens e est riche, et souvent originale Avoir lu ses 2 pr c dents livres permet de comprendre ce qui n est pas crit Sinon, le texte est clair mais appelle parfois des d velop...

  2. La lecture de Sapiens m avait fait d couvrir cet auteur, lecture tr s instructive et passionnante.Ce n est pas le cas de cet ouvrage.En 1er lieu, il faut savoir que ce livre est le regroupement d articles de presse parus s par ment New Yorker, Guardian Bloomberg View, News Stateman, etc que personne ne qualifiera de r f rences scientifiques et mis bout bout pour construire ce livre De ce fait, il n existe pas r ellement de fil directeur, et il fait souvent des raccourcis simplistes.En 2nd lieu, rappellons que Yuval Noah Harari est historien de formation Sapiens retrace notre pass , les artefacts sont l , m me s il y a des cha nons manquants, et m me si cela laisse une marge d interpr tation non n gligeable Mais le pass est d j crit Ce n est pas le cas du futur.YN Harari n est pas philosophe, ni th ologien, ni politologue, ni futurologue, et encore moins chercheur en Neurosciences, ou ing nieur IA l IA reste un outil, dont l tre humain d cide de l utilisation et de l application, comme la bombe atomique, les algorithmes ne vont pas prendre le pouvoir, m me si ce th me fait vendre du papier et exploser l audimat.Le livre est une succession de chapitres ou l auteur donne son avis sur la science, la v rit , les religions, la politique, l Union Europ enne, etc en m langeant le tout avec des faits historiques M me si on est historien, on ne peut tre sp ciali...

  3. Je ne l ai pas encore termin a ne se lit pas aussi vite qu un roman et a fatigue un peu la t te Harari a toujours une fa on originale d aborder les probl mes et de prendre du recul avant de les analyser Tr s document Pas forc ment optimiste et un peu contre courant du politiquement correct, su...

  4. L auteur nous emm ne de nouveau et avec un m me bonheur sur les chemins de la connaissance Rien n est affirm , tout est m thodiquement d montr On mesure le travail fourni au regard de la rigueur des argumentations d velopp es Cet ouvrage n a rien a envier aux pr ...

  5. Wow, never have I read a book of this size this fast That was an amazing piece of art Personally loved the chapters God , Ignorance , Post truth and Meaning Harari truly is a master in his art Doesn t happen this often to read so...

  6. A must have if you are constantly questioning about issues we are all facing in the 21st century, and issues we might face in the future Excellent sum up, and at the same time goes deeper into some important subjects religion, big data, artificial intelligence.Some ideas are deb...

  7. Every page is an insight in our society and what is happening or will happen soon I highly recommend it.

  8. Pose les questions pour la suite du si cle.Ses trois ouvrages sont lire, l anglais utilis n est pas un obstacle